FUI (Indonesian Shrimp Forum) has held a webinar series I on November 23th 2021 with mainly topic “Standard Operating Procedure for Sustainable Vaname Shrimp Culture”. This webinar was also supported by KKP, UNIDO, and YSAI. Focus discussion in this first series is an operational procedures in pre-production preparation in Vaname culture with Prof. Sukenda as a practitioner and IPB’s lecturer as speaker and the discussant by Mr. Hardi Pitoyo as daily principal of SCI (Shrimp Club Indonesia).
This session webinar was attended by various stakeholders such as academics, students, shrimp farmers who had experted in shrimp farming, fishery extension in any regency, etc. with more than 200 webinar participants. The output of this webinar are operational procedures guideline for Vaname shrimp culture that have been compiled can being a reference and being medium for stakeholders to provide criticism and recomend regarding to standard operating procedure in preparation sustainable Vaname culture.
Prof. Sukenda as the first speaker explain about the operational procedures for Vaname shrimp culture that had been made in collaboration with UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), KKP, and FUI with funded by Swiss government. In its preparation, aquaculture operational procedures are divided into 14 chapters, there are legality of shrimp farming business, selection location, design, and construction shrimp culture, pond preparation, water intake, selection and stocking, basic management of ponds and water quality, feed management, sampling management, health shrimp management, harvest and post-harvest handling, biosecurity management, food safety management, social and economic aspects, and also documentation and traceability. However, session I is limited until stocking.
Aspects of legality are mandatory for every entrepreneur, including shrimp farmers. Farmers are required to have a business permit and a farm operational permit. The related permits are summarized in 11 permits, namely IPPT, NIB, IMB for offices, messes, etc., permits for storing fuel and RKK from the directorate general of PRL (undersea pipeline cables). The government is also trying to summarize business licenses to make it easier for farmers for legality their business. For more information we can ask in PTSP in each area.
Prof. Sukenda explain the second part of the operational procedure, is site selection, how the layout and construction of the pond will be build. Some generic factors that need to be considered in selecting the feasibility of the location as a pond are ecology, biology and operations, socio-economics, and legality. For consideration in ecology aspect, location of the pond should have green belt area which is mangrove area between beach and the pond. In the SOP that was prepared, the location selection was guided by PerMen KKP No. 75 in 2016.
Choosing an area deal by collecting secondary data related to land potential, hydro-oceanographic characteristics, climate, socio-economics, and applicable regulation. Furthermore, land location surveys, vegetation surveys, and water surveys can be carried out. The important one is accessibility to support shrimp culture. Prof. Sukenda says that the critical point in the selection of location shrimp culture accordance with the regional government’s spatial plan. For example, there are allocate zone for aquaculture area, mangrove area, and recreation area.
After the pre-survey and the next survey, an evaluation is carried out by giving a score (score and weighting). Assessment about soil texture can still be overcome by applying related technologies, for example by compacted the layer soil with an excavator or use HDPE liner for pond.
Mainly factors which are have work on design for layout pond are economic factor, functional factor, and aesthetic factor. Economic factor is related to the value of investment in the construction of ponds and being limit for type pond and pond capacity, facilities and infrastructure will build to support shrimp culture. Prof. Sukenda explicate that pond area must be limited by a barrier such as dike and it also have function for biofilter and biosecurity. Shrimp culture must have water treatment reservoir pond and treatment reservoir pond (IPAL).
The reservoir pond that must have to do at least 30% of the large of the culture pond and the design adjusting the quality of the water intake and system culture (related to density). The reservoir pond is used for sedimentation process before entering to waste treatment pond and the treatment process for the water to be used. As for the culture pond, it must minimize seepage and generally the large of pond about 0.25-0.5 ha.
The next chapter about preparation pond which include take the organic substance in the bottom pond after harvest, fertilization the base pond (soil), water filling and sterilization water treatment, and the last step is water fertilization to grow phytoplankton and probiotic bacteria. Prof. Sukenda also gave an explanation about the differences in pond conditions affect the treatment will given in the preparation process. For example, if a pond pond has history of WSSV disease, we can treat it with addition of 100 ppm HCl which is sprayed on the surface of the pond.
After the pond is already to use, the next step is water intake. The water in the reservoir pond after had been threated must be evaluate in water quality parameters (salinity, TSS, phosphate, BOD, etc.) then the water flow to the culture pond. After that, water will be threat with using chlorine then three days later add organic pesticides (saponins and copper sulfate) for kill pests and being antimicrobial substances. Once ready, fertilization is carried out with bran fermentation, activation of Bacillus sp., dolomite, and ZA fertilizers.
Fry shrimp stocking was carried out for 14 days after last sterilization. Selected shrimp fry that have been certified free of WSSV, TSV, IMNV, AHPND, EHP and in visually have an uniform size. The importand thing that to be considered when stocking fry is acclimatization, different temperature about 1 degree Celsius will affect metabolic rate of fry about 10-15% and this will trigger to stress level. Before stocking, a random check was carried out as a sample to calculate fry shrimp is it same as our order.
After the presentation about standard operational procedur explicitly, the first discussant, Mr. Hardi Pitoyo from SCI (Shrimp Club Indonesia) gave some suggestions to improve the operational standards that had been made. First is related in ordinal chapter in operational procedures where the first what we do is select the location, design and layout is the first to be carried out. Event we administer permits, type, design, and layout pond is the requirements. Furthermore, regarding in the preparation ponds, it should be made spesifically and more detail for any type pond (land based pond, semi HDPE, full HDPE) because it need different treatments. For example, when drying the bottom pond, ponds with land based ponds will have a longer time than HDPE ponds.
Mr. Hardi Pitoyo also added related to reservoir pond. In the presentation of the reservoir pond material, the function should be emphasized even more because the existence of this reservoir is not mandatory for locations where the water source has good quality. He emphasized that the reservoir functions to ensure quality and quantity water and there should be no physical, chemical, or biological dynamics in or in otherhand the water quality is stable in physical, chemical, and biological parameters. He also give more information based in his experience in formation of water. Fertilization needs to be emphasized again its function is to grow plankton. The amount, type, and frequency of fertilization will produce different types of plankton. It is necessary to explain in more detail the types of plankton that are we need to been grown and what are needed.
The second discussant, Bambang Widigdo as a lecturer at IPB, reminded again regarding the safety and biosecurity of products and the environment. In the future, overseas consumers are very concerned about the environment culture. He emphasized that shrimp farmers must carefully to not throw away the waste in every steps of shrimp culture. Indonesia has started to enforce that ponds must be built on mangrove areas (supratidal areas) not in the intertidal (tidal areas) especially for intensive ponds. He said that for ponds that are no longer in use, mangroves should be planted again. Regarding to food safety, farmers do not use prohibited material in such as antibiotics.
The third discussant is Mr. Agus Apung Budiman who discussed about social responsibility. In the reality, there are many cases where people sell their land until the shoreline cause it is detrimental to investors.
During the discussion session, he added related to dichlorophos from the organo phosphate group. With a dose of 3 ppm was effective as a crustacide, but in 2010 the goverment banned to used that crustacide for agriculture in general even though it does not produce residues in fisheries. He recomendation to use dischlorophos as a crustacide in the preparation of ponds, because it has more effective and cheaper.