Webinar series II with topic “Standard Operational Procedure for Sustainable Vannamei Shrimp Culture” was held on December 23, 2021 by FUI (Indonesian Shrimp Forum). This session focuses on process of shrimp farm activities begin from water quality management, feed management and probiotic treatment, health management of Vannamei and effluent management.
Ir Budhi Wibowo as the chairman of FUI said that webinar session I about guideline standard operation procedurefor sustainable vanamei shrimp culture was held last month with focus attention on pond preparation. Socialization and introduce this SOP is not only in webinar but also through training offline that has been carried out in Banyuwangi. Hopefully next year training about SOP for sustainable Vaname shrimp culture will be continue in other region in Indonesia.
Sudari Pawiro, a delegation from UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development) also added that global quality standard program has been running for 3 years and next year it will be last year in UNIDO’s program. This programs aim to improve upskill raw material during on process sustainable vanamei culture. By applied this guideline, it can increase capacity production and productivity in the sustainable vannamei shrimpfarm. This SOP guideline which was written by Prof. Sukenda, has been discussed about material discussions through FGD with stakeholders and has been had pilot project to implemented this SOP in Lampung. The results of this pilot project has satisfactory results in productivity and quality of shrimp products. In 2022 UNIDO will also focus on mentoring and monitoring for stakeholders, especially farmers whose want to implement this SOP. Talking about water quality management , there are mainly factors to be considered: physical, chemical, biological factors. These factors are critical point in the shrimp farming process. Prof. Sukenda explained that shifting disease in vannamei shrimp from viral disease become bacterial disease is shifting happened to be alert. It is also necessary if farmers to pay attention about the dominance plankton should be grow more in quantity and which plankton that should be minimized in the pond. It should be noted that replace water and siphoning aquaculture ponds requires acclimatization for water which intake water due tothe current declining condition of sea water quality.
Water quality management in sustainable vannamei shrimpfarm also includes effluent management. management of effluent is also being limelight for buyers in international market as well as it was required for global quality standards because effluent water was indicated to pollute around the shrimp pond. The principle of pond waste management is to convert organic matter into simple molecular forms, it is not a pollutant. Completely waste management system with WWTP standards according to SNI standard in ponds still being consideration for farmers due to related in several things, especially in land limitations, financial, and complexity of the wastewater management design installation technology
used. Therefore, FUI also introduce minimalist WWTP system that can be applied to shrimp farmers. Entering the feed management material, Prof. Sukenda explained about the purpose of feeding shrimp, namely as nutrients for growth, organ development, and immunity. Nutrient requirement are different at each stage and always related to environmental changes. For example, in the transition season (beididing) in pond water there is a significant fluctuation in water temperature. It cause shrimp has more susceptible to illness and slow growth. To deal with this, shrimp need suplement like antioxidant supplements and possibly also taurine that is different from normal conditions. Determinate of this feeding rate for each feed has own FR reference, but usually operational manager will change the proportion of FR according to conditions in the field so that feed can be absorbed
optimally. Sampling management needs to evaluate health shrimp such as physical (normal or abnormal) shrimp and setting feeding management (FR). Sampling equipment (nets, digital scales, etc.) should not be used between ponds, but if condition isnt well, then after sampling equipment the must be sterilized.
The principle of shrimp and enviromental health management is integrated holistic efforts towards disease prevention starting from preparation (selection and stocking fry shrimp, optimal preparation), good nutrition, good water quality management, consistent monitoring of shrimp health, and reduction stressor factors in shrimp. Main diseases in vannamei shrimp such as vibriosis, white spot, WFD, etc. It should be noted well that shrimp immunity is non-specific so it is not mediated by an adaptive immune system but mostly mediated by non-specific antibodies,inerd natural immunity, so vitamins and other addictive feeds need to be given periodly. Feed addictive that can be added is probiotics. The role of probiotics at shrimp as inhibition the bacteria’s growth which are pathogenic to shrimp, feed supplements, and can improve water quality. The probiotics are used must be legal products and farmers must have record probiotics and other bioremediation during shrimp culture.
The last chapter in SOP guideline is about which it has role to prevent and protect shrimp from potential pathogens (introduction of disease and disease agents) at every stage of the production process. Biosecurity is categorized into 3 methods, namely physics, chemistry, and biology. In practice shrimp culture, we approach hazard analysis and critical control point. An example of biosecurity is bird scaring advices. After presentation of the material given by Prof. Sukenda, a discussion was carried out by Mr. Hardi Pitoyo, a representative from SCI (Shrimp Culture Indonesia). First, he added a suggestion regarding the differences in the basic management of ponds in each type of pond (semi HDPE ponds, land ponds, or HDPE ponds). He added that it is also related to the differences in the quality standards of supply water, aquaculture water, and waste water. For example, the quality of supply water and aquaculture pond water has different vibrio in the two waters, TSS and TOM are also different.
Still in water quality management, DO measurement during the day is carried out in order to evaluate how much DO is given from the results of plankton photosynthesis. The balance between plankton and bacteria must be balanced in the pond. Regarding effluent, we often misunderstanding about aquaculture wastewater. Different according to him, standardization of effluent does not mean the same as industrial wastewater, but the effluent is only an ecological change from the nature of the water so that an WWTP is needed that is appliable for farmers.